printf (string format, ...)

Prints text and variables in a log file and the message window in [Test] and [Trade] modes. This is a standard C function. It allows to display messages and variables.

print (int to, string format, ...)

Similar to printf, but prints text and variables to a target channel given by the to parameter, such as the log file, a .csv spreadsheet file, the HTML status page, or the performance report.

msg (string format, ...): int

Displays text and variables in a modal or nonmodal message box with [Yes] and [No] buttons, and waits for the user to click one of the buttons. Format strings beginning with '#' open a nonmodal box.


0 when [No] was clicked, 1 when [Yes] was clicked.



TO_WINDOW - print to the message window and the log file (default for printf).
TO_LOG - print in [Test] mode only to the log file, in [Trade] and in STEPWISE mode also to the message window.
TO_FILE - print in [Test] and [Trade] mode to the log file.
TO_ANY - print in all modes to the message window and log file (= TO_WINDOW+TRAINMODE).
TO_DIAG - print to the diag.txt file (see Verbose). Note that log files and diag.txt file are not yet open in the INITRUN.
TO_ALERT - print to an alert box and stop black box recording when the ALERT flag is set for Verbose.
TO_OUT - print to a file with the script name and extension ".out" in the Log folder.
TO_CSV - print to a file with the script name and extension ".csv" in the Data folder, for exporting data.
TO_CSVHDR - print to the first line of the CSV file; for writing a header before writing the data..
TO_REPORT - print in the EXITRUN to the performance report, for displaying additional performance parameters.
TO_HTML - print in [Trade] or in STEPWISE mode to the HTML file that displays the live trading status. HMTL format codes can be included in the text.
TO_TITLE - print to the title bar.
TO_INFO - print to the info field. print(TO_INFO, 0) displays the current account or simulation state in the info field.
TO_PANEL - print to the caption bar of the current control panel.
TO_CHART - print to the caption bar and - if PL_TITLE is set - to the title of the current chart.
+TRAINMODE - print also in [Train] mode.


C-style format string, containing arbitrary text with placeholders for subsequent variables (see format codes). The placeholders begin with a percent sign '%' and define the format of the displayed number. Examples: "$%.2f" prints a var with a dollar symbol and 2 decimals; "%i" prints an int; "%+4.1f" prints a var with +/- sign, 4 digits, and one decimal. For printing float variables, use the %f placeholder and typecast them to (var).

... Expressions or variables, one for each placeholder in the format text.



// printf example
var vPrice = 123.456;
float fDiscount = 1.5;
int nNumber = 77;
printf("\nPrice %.3f for %d items, total %.3f, discount %.1f%%",
  vPrice, nNumber, nNumber*vPrice, (var)fDiscount);
// HTML status message example
if(ATR(30) < Threshold)
  print(TO_HTML,"<br>Low volatility - ATR30 = %.3f",ATR(30));
// nonmodal box example
function run()
    msg("#Nonmodal message box.\nClick [Ok] to exit script!");
// CSV file output example
function run()
  LookBack = 100;

See also:

sound, string, Editor, keys, sprintf, strf, progress, watch, format codes

► latest version online